Author: John Carter

MDMA ecstasy, Molly neurotoxicity brain damage The DEA: The definitive guide to MDMA molly, ecstasy

can molly cause brain damage

The activation of these receptors triggers a massive release of neurotransmitters. MDMA also inhibits serotonin reuptake by its binding to the transporter protein, thus prolonging signaling at the synapses. Besides, the MDMA bindings to the plasma membrane transporters are also translocated into the cytoplasm and promote non-exocytotic transmitter release (Verrico, Miller, & Madras, 2007). This causes the accumulation of the neurotransmitters between the synapses, which can result in excitotoxicity. Although MDMA was reported to improve the emotional and personality problems in psychotherapy as mentioned earlier, its long-term effects can be more adverse.

  1. It was found recently to protect against MDMA-induced injury via full preservation of 5-HT arbours indicated by imaging (Mercer et al., 2017).
  2. When testing a new medication, you can’t let the people who you’re testing it on know if they’re getting the real drug or a sugar pill, because expectations can produce a powerful placebo effect; people who expect to feel better inevitably do feel better.
  3. No topic related to MDMA has caused as much controversy as the claim that it damages user’s brains.
  4. The MDMA side effects mostly affect the brain and behavior even after long periods of abstinence.
  5. Positron emission tomography (PET) brain imaging studies of people who have stopped using MDMA have shown decreases in brain activity at rest in prefrontal, parietal, and mediotemporal cortices as well as in the amygdala, cingulate, and hippocampus.

Another therapeutic option for MDMA abuse is rilmenidine, which is one of the antidepressants (Laurent & Safar, 1992). It was found recently to protect against MDMA-induced injury via full preservation of 5-HT arbours indicated by imaging (Mercer et al., 2017). Besides, co-administration of acute MDMA and mephedrone showed antidepressant-like activity and improved memory in mice (Budzynska & Michalak, 2017). Another natural substance was shown to prevent apoptosis induced by MDMA. Ginger was proven to reduce the activation of the caspase cascade responsible for cell death (Asl et al., 2013).

Does recreational ecstasy use cause long-term cognitive problems?

More typically, experimental animals that develop MDMA neurotoxicity reach body temperatures of about 39C (103F). Although the exact mechanisms of MDMA neurotoxicity are at best imperfectly understood, damage is clearly a result of the combination of the unusual strain placed on the neurons by drug exposure being greatly amplified by overheating. I do not anticipate human neurotoxicity at any likely voluntarily taken dose of MDMA in the absence of significant and prolonged hyperthermic response.

can molly cause brain damage

Any sort of expectation of what the results will be by the test subjects will throw off those same results. This sort of problem is especially great when testing drug users for cognitive effects, because not only do they know if they’re in the control group or not, they probably have some idea of what the researchers expect the result to be. (For instance, just about anybody you recruit for an MDMA study knows that they are expected to have memory problems.) How can you control for this sort of bias?

Common Long-Term Effects Of Molly Addiction

The NMDA receptor, a type of ionotropic glutamate receptors, was reported to be also involved in the rewarding effects of MDMA (Garcia-Pardo, Escobar-Valero, Rodriguez-Arias, Minarro, & Aguilar, 2015). MDMA-treated rats also displayed a deficit in recognition memory in the novel recognition test, which was believed to occur due to the damage to dopamine neurons (Cadoni et al., 2017). Hence, the effects of MDMA on memory are seen through the alterations in dopaminergic as well as the disruption of NMDA receptors.

Hyperthermia can result in stroke, liver damage, kidney failure, and brain damage, especially to the cerebellum. Tragically for the students at Wesleyan, they may have gotten a “bad batch” of Molly. The dose may have been too high, or the pills may have been adulterated with caffeine or other amphetamine-like substances.

Addiction Resource aims to provide only the most current, accurate information in regards to addiction and addiction treatment, which means we only reference the most credible sources available. Our helpline is open, and our staff is ready to provide information on addiction treatment options for you or your loved one. Recently, however, MDMA’s capacity to mitigate negative perceptions while enhancing openness has led it to be reconsidered for psychotherapy in general and treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in particular.

can molly cause brain damage

If one of our treatment centers is not a good fit, our representatives may refer you to another detox or treatment center, or the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) hotline to find a program that best suits your needs. We do not receive any compensation or commission for referrals to other treatment facilities. Serotonin neurons are located throughout the brain, and molly has been linked to the destruction of these neurons and their multiple functions. Molly causes severe dehydration, especially when a person is engaging in rigorous activity.

Damage From Dehydration

Those that do make some effort to control this effect usually do no more than ask volunteers not to use for two weeks and give urine test for drugs the day of testing. However, all research indicates that MDMA can subtly affect the mind for at least 3-4 weeks, and urine drug tests only detect use within the past few days. The amphetamine-type stimulant drugs, such as MDMA or ecstasy become the choice of drug abuse among young people and adults besides opioids, which is due to a feeling of excitement experienced immediately after the administration. The MDMA side effects mostly affect the brain and behavior even after long periods of abstinence. People who want to quit the drug usually fail because of withdrawal complications.

Long-term molly abuse has been linked to permanent brain damage, organ damage, organ failure, psychosis, and even death. Equally intriguing is the author’s claim that “oral administration offers little or no significant neuroprotection” relative to the injected route used in the experiment. The girl’s brain scan may actually be abnormal, but there is no way to know what caused it (depression can also reduce brain activity, as can fatigue), or if her brain was ever like the “healthy brain” example they showed, or if what changes were seen were merely temporary. Under this model, three things need to happen in order for you to suffer neurotoxicity. First, you need to take a fairly large dose of MDMA (how much is needed isn’t clear.) Then, you need to run a very high body temperature for an extended period of time.

Moreover, other complications, such as the lower performance of the learning and memory and also anxiety could disturb their everyday life. Accordingly, this study reviewed the neurotoxic effects of MDMA on neuronal brain activity and MDMA targets, such as receptors and neurotransmitter systems that alter the brain and body functions. Therefore, researchers may target these areas as treatment options. The new findings are always welcomed for the sake of people and the community, especially in addiction. The role of overheating in MDMA neurotoxicity can hardly be exaggerated; no animal experiment has ever produced neurotoxicity at any dose of MDMA at normal human body temperature. In the infamous Ricaurte “Ecstasy Parkinsonism” monkey experiment, his animals reached body temperatures of as high as 107F.

Evidence of neurotoxicity

All Addiction Resource content is medically reviewed or fact checked to ensure as much factual accuracy as possible. Dehydration and electrolyte imbalance can cause irreversible damage to the heart, brain, and kidneys.

MDMA and the Brain: A Short Review on the Role of Neurotransmitters in Neurotoxicity

Regarding the long-term effects of MDMA exposure, it was proven that MDMA could reduce the level of serotonin in the cerebrospinal fluid of rats (Mueller et al., 2009; Mustafa et al., 2018). However, some researchers have suggested that MDMA may be able to cause a long-term 5-HT down-regulation without causing structural damage to serotonin neurons (Kish, 2002). MDMA-induced serotonin deficit has been interpreted as neurotoxicity. Unfortunately, there is still an ongoing debate on whether the deficit of serotonin reflects damage to the neurons (Baumann, Wang & Rothman, 2007).

The second study focused on social rejection, using a game called “Cyberball,” which was developed as a model for ostracism. In Cyberball, participants play virtual catch with two computer-simulated characters who can either toss the ball to the subject or to each other. If the subject receives more throws, he is meant to feel accepted. Frye and colleagues hypothesized that rejection during Cyberball would have a negative impact on mood, while pretreatment with MDMA would reduce this effect. It’s cheap, it’s easy, and may provide a little extra safety margin.

Even though MDMA doesn’t necessarily have addictive properties like some other drugs, such as cocaine or methamphetamine, there’s still the potential for substance misuse. And chronic, heavy use of MDMA may even have long-term effects — especially on serotonin in the brain. Taking molly affects neurotransmitter levels in the brain, changes blood flow to specific areas and can result in brain damage. Now…would you care to take a guess as to what miscreant produced this bit of scientifically suspect but loved-by-the-government ‘research’? If you’re interested in MDMA as a mental health treatment, you may be able to help researchers learn more about its effects in clinical testing. Many scientists are working to change the legalization of MDMA to allow for more testing to be done, but some research is still currently ongoing.